The clinical heterogeneity of dyskinesia and freezing disorder (freezing of gait) and its management strategies in adults with Parkinson’s disease

Yong-peng Yu


In view of the complexity and heterogeneity of clinical motor complications of Parkinson's disease, this paper explore the inner relationship between the clinical heterogeneity of dyskinesia and freezing disorder (freezing of gait) on the basis of clinical phenomenon, breaking through the conventional mode of thinking. It suggests that the “off and on” classification elements should be applied to definite and consider the concept of dyskinesia and freezing disorder (freezing of gait). The contradiction and unity of freezing phenomenon and dyskinesia was further analyzed. It is proposed that “on freezing” belongs to dyskinesia, and “off dyskinesia” belongs to “off freezing”. This point view could help to get better grasp of the occurrence rule of motor complications and clinical management strategies in a new perspective. In addition, the pathogenesis, epidemiology and clinical management strategies of dyskinesia and freezing are discussed and summarized


Parkinson's disease; Dyskinesia; Freezing; Heterogeneity; On state; Off state

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Global Journal of Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Diseases

ISSN 2309-3374 (Print)  ISSN 2375-4095 (Online)